There is another problem that limits smaller beams to a seat at the foot of the table. Membership implies important new requirements, especially as a large alliance grows. In order for members to play an active role in decision-making on all key issues, they must participate in numerous committee meetings and other deliberations in order to make their voices heard. The absence of such meetings may mean that they become parties to agreements that are not ideal for them. The time obligations associated with membership can be painful, even for large airlines, a feature that can only further accentuate the difference in internal stature between members if the number of groups increases. American often offers competitive rates with ULCC fares on the specific routes on which it competes. But if these low-fare segments are combined with other segments to create a non-stop Route Served by American – for example, a transcontinental route – the combined fare may be lower than what U.S. non-stop passengers offer. The report continues: "To achieve tariff combinability, airlines need to harmonise their cards and fare rules. In the absence of an integrated alliance, airlines may not necessarily have an incentive to make these detailed changes to their pricing and sales processes, as they will continue to focus on pricing and selling their own flights. American explained why he changed the rules. Ultra-low-cost carriers can offer extremely low fares between some high-demand cities because they don`t have the cost of operating an extensive connecting network, it has been said.